Download and read online A Spatial Analysis of Healthy Food Availability in Urban Neighborhoods in PDF and EPUB Food insecurity and poor access to healthy foods is a global and local issue. In the United States, urban populations demonstrate enormous disparities in quality and access to food resources necessary for a healthy life. This study demonstrates that although healthy foods may be available within a close proximity to some urban neighborhoods, these resources may be in limited supply or inaccessible by segments of local populations. In south and southwest Philadelphia, two neighborhoods demonstrate a high concentration of fresh food and vegetable availability characterized by supermarket service regions of approximately 0.10 square miles. Six additional high density neighborhoods demonstrate much lower availability with supermarket service regions extending to 2.53 square miles. Gaps or underserved areas outside supermarket service areas demonstrate a lower rate of accessibility to fresh fruit and vegetables than the corresponding service iv areas of supermarkets. Within supermarket service areas the density of grocers stocking fresh fruits and vegetables is 35.3 grocers per square mile. In supermarket gap areas this number drops to 7.1 grocers per square mile. Thus some neighborhoods have access not only to supermarkets, but also benefit from a higher density of smaller grocers stocking fresh fruits and vegetables. Similarly, the mean produce accessibility rate for pedestrian supermarket service areas is 887.3 square feet of fresh fruits and vegetables per 1000 population. The produce accessibility rate drops significantly in pedestrian and public transit gap areas. In spite of statistical relationships between produce accessibility and location in a gap or service area, fruit and vegetable intake does not show a correlation with an accessibility measure to supermarkets. Policy recommendations include aligning transportation and food access for underserved areas and coupling education with improved access to improve healthy food intake. Neighborhoods vulnerable to poor fresh fruit and vegetable access tend to be less dense fringe areas of well established urban neighborhoods.
Download and read online Spatial Health Inequalities in PDF and EPUB The neighborhoods and the biophysical, political, and cultural environments all play a key role in affecting health outcomes of individuals. Unequal spatial distribution of resources such as clinics, hospitals, public transportation, fresh food markets, and schools could make some communities as a whole more vulnerable and less resilient to adverse health effects. This somber reality suggests that it is rather the question of "who you are depends upon where you are" and the fact that health inequality is both a people and a place concern. That is why health inequality needs to be investigated in a spatial setting to deepen our understanding of why and how some geographical areas experience poorer health than others. This book introduces how spatial context shapes health inequalities. Spatial Health Inequalities: Adapting GIS Tools and Data Analysis demonstrates the spatial health inequalities in six most important topics in environmental and public health, including food insecurity, birth health outcomes, infectious diseases, children’s lead poisoning, chronic diseases, and health care access. These are the topics that the author has done extensive research on and provides a detailed description of the topic from a global perspective. Each chapter identifies relevant data and data sources, discusses key literature on appropriate techniques, and then illustrates with real data with mapping and GIS techniques. This is a unique book for students, geographers, clinicians, health and research professionals and community members interested in applying GIS and spatial analysis to the study of health inequalities.
Download and read online Detroit in PDF and EPUB As America’s most dysfunctional big city, Detroit faces urban decay, population losses, fractured neighborhoods with impoverished households, an uneducated, unskilled workforce, too few jobs, a shrinking tax base, budgetary shortfalls, and inadequate public schools. Looking to the city’s future, Lewis D. Solomon focuses on pathways to revitalizing Detroit, while offering a cautiously optimistic viewpoint. Solomon urges an economic development strategy, one anchored in Detroit balancing its municipal and public school district’s budgets, improving the academic performance of its public schools, rebuilding its tax base, and looking to the private sector to create jobs. He advocates an overlapping, tripartite political economy, one that builds on the foundation of an appropriately sized public sector and a for-profit private sector, with the latter fueling economic growth. Although he acknowledges that Detroit faces a long road to implementation, Solomon sketches a vision of a revitalized economic sector based on two key assets: vacant land and an unskilled labor force. The book is divided into four distinct parts. The first provides background and context, with a brief overview of the city’s numerous challenges. The second examines Detroit’s immediate efforts to overcome its fiscal crisis. It proposes ways Detroit can be put on the path to financial stability and sustainability. The third considers how Detroit can implement a new approach to job creation, one focused on the for-profit private sector, not the public sector. In the fourth and final part, Solomon argues that residents should pursue a strategy based on the actions of individuals and community groups rather than looking to large-scale projects.
Download and read online Neighbourhood Structure and Health Promotion in PDF and EPUB It has long been theorized that people living in poor areas have more health problems than their more advantaged peers. More recently, science has been testing this hypothesis, concentrating on the impact of the built environment on well-being and its contribution to health inequities. Neighbourhood Structure and Health Promotion offers sociology-based theory and evidence-based findings so readers may better understand the effects of place on health choices, behaviour, and outcomes. This international volume analyzes the complex relationships among neighbourhood conditions and characteristics, people's perceptions of where they live, and their everyday health lives, from eating habits and activity levels to smoking, drinking, and drug use. Chapters introduce innovative methods for measuring and monitoring links between place and health in terms of risks and resources, and employing objective and subjective data. Prospects for engaging neighbourhoods in prevention efforts, particularly involving young people, and policy implications for the future of health promotion and inequity reduction are discussed as well. Included in the coverage: The spatiality of injustice: area effects on behaviour. Qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing neighbourhood health resources. The potential of GIS and GPS in the health sciences. Green spaces and health: possibilities for research and policy. School neighbourhoods and obesity prevention in youth. Connecting gender, social environment, and health. Neighbourhood Structure and Health Promotion advances the study of this increasingly critical topic, making it a valuable reference for researchers, practitioners, policy makers and advanced students in health, health promotion, social epidemiology, and urban planning.
Download and read online City of Well being in PDF and EPUB City of Well-being provides a radical and holistic introduction to the science and art of town planning. It starts from the premise that the purpose of planning is the health, well-being and sustainable quality of life of people. Drawing on current and historic examples it offers inspiration, information and an integrated perspective which challenges all professions and decision-makers that affect the urban environment. It is both authoritative and readable, designed for students, practitioners, politicians and civil society. The science. Summarizing the most recent research, the book demonstrates the interrelationships between the huge issues of obesity, unhealthy lifestyles, inequality, mental illness, climate change and environmental quality. The radical implications for transport, housing, economic, social and energy policies are spelt out. The art and politics. The book examines how economic development really happens, and how spatial decisions reinforce or undermine good intentions. It searches for the creative strategies, urban forms and neighbourhood designs that can marry the ideal with the real. The relationship of planning and politics is tackled head-on, leading to conclusions about the role of planners, communities and development agencies in a pluralistic society. Healthy planning principles could provide a powerful logical motivation for all practitioners.
Download and read online Neighborhood Racial Composition Neighborhood Poverty and Food Access in Metropolitan Detroit in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Local Food Environments in PDF and EPUB Local Food Environments: Food Access in America provides information on the complex nature of food delivery systems as well as the historical and political trends that have shaped them over time. The book presents the empirical evidence demonstrating disparities in access to healthy affordable foods across the United States and how these disparities may explain food consumption patterns for some Americans as well as potential risks for diet-related illness. The book describes the current body of research surrounding these associations and presents the methodological issues pertinent to this area of public health. Evidence from these studies is placed in context of current and past American food policies that have supported the existing food retail market including the production and retailing of foods and ways in which the consolidation of the food system has affected Americans. Research conducted regarding local food environments in Canada has also been included as a point of comparison. Methods are discussed as well as the current state of knowledge regarding factors associated with disparities between local food environments, the effect of these disparities on the diets of residents within those communities, and the impact that local food environments have on diet-related health outcomes, such as obesity. Also described are solutions garnered to minimize local food environment inequalities currently being conducted by federal, state, and local government agencies. Although this book focuses on US local food environments, similar issues regarding access to food are concurrently taking place outside of the US. In all chapters, readers are encouraged to critically consider the current research methods as well as recent programs and policies that aim to address local food environments.
Download and read online Rapid Urbanisation Urban Food Deserts and Food Security in Africa in PDF and EPUB This book investigates food security and the implications of hyper-urbanisation and rapid growth of urban populations in Africa. By means of a series of case studies involving African cities of various sizes, it argues that, while the concept of food security holds value, it needs to be reconfigured to fit the everyday realities and distinctive trajectory of urbanisation in the region. The book goes on to discuss the urban context, where food insecurity is more a problem of access and changing consumption patterns than of insufficient food production. In closing, it approaches food insecurity in Africa as an increasingly urban problem that requires different responses from those applied to rural populations.
Download and read online Hearing to Review Access to Healthy Foods for Beneficiaries of Federal Nutrition Programs and Explore Innovative Methods to Improve Availability in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online American Journal of Public Health in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Feeding Gotham in PDF and EPUB New York City witnessed unparalleled growth in the first half of the nineteenth century, its population rising from thirty thousand people to nearly a million in a matter of decades. Feeding Gotham looks at how America's first metropolis grappled with the challenge of provisioning its inhabitants. It tells the story of how access to food, once a public good, became a private matter left to free and unregulated markets—and of the profound consequences this had for American living standards and urban development. Taking readers from the early republic to the Civil War, Gergely Baics explores the changing dynamics of urban governance, market forces, and the built environment that defined New Yorkers’ experiences of supplying their households. He paints a vibrant portrait of the public debates that propelled New York from a tightly regulated public market to a free-market system of provisioning, and shows how deregulation had its social costs and benefits. Baics uses cutting-edge GIS mapping techniques to reconstruct New York’s changing food landscapes over half a century, following residents into neighborhood public markets, meat shops, and groceries across the city’s expanding territory. He lays bare how unequal access to adequate and healthy food supplies led to an increasingly differentiated urban environment. A masterful blend of economic, social, and geographic history, Feeding Gotham traces how this highly fragmented geography of food access became a defining and enduring feature of the American city.
Download and read online Obesity Prevention in PDF and EPUB Over the years, approaches to obesity prevention and treatment have gone from focusing on genetic and other biological factors to exploring a diversity of diets and individual behavior modification interventions anchored primarily in the power of the mind, to the recent shift focusing on societal interventions to design "temptation-proof" physical, social, and economic environments. In spite of repeated calls to action, including those of the World Health Organization (WHO), the pandemic continues to progress. WHO recently projected that if the current lifestyle trend in young and adult populations around the world persist, by 2012 in countries like the USA, health care costs may amount to as much as 17.7% of the GDP. Most importantly, in large part due to the problems of obesity, those children may be the first generation ever to have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents. Obesity Prevention presents the most current research and proposals for addressing the pandemic. Past studies have focused primarly on either genetic or behavioral causes for obesity, however today's research indicates that a strongly integrated program is the best prospect for success in overcoming obesity. Furthermore, focus on the role of society in establishing an affordable, accessible and sustainable program for implementing these lifestyle changes is vital, particularly for those in economically challenged situations, who are ultimately at the highest risk for obesity. Using studies from both neuroscience and behavioral science to present a comprehensive overview of the challenges and possible solutions, The brain-to-society approach to obesity prevention focuses on what is needed in order to sustain a healthy, pleasurable and affordable lifestyle. Explores the "brain-to-society" approach to obesity prevention, focusing on an integrative approach to addressing the obesity pandemic Presents both the nueroscientific and the behavioral factors that impact eating habits Identifies the challenges and suggests solutions for altering attitudes toward food on both an individual and a societal level
Download and read online The Public Health Effects of Food Deserts in PDF and EPUB In the United States, people living in low-income neighborhoods frequently do not have access to affordable healthy food venues, such as supermarkets. Instead, those living in "food deserts" must rely on convenience stores and small neighborhood stores that offer few, if any, healthy food choices, such as fruits and vegetables. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and National Research Council (NRC) convened a two-day workshop on January 26-27, 2009, to provide input into a Congressionally-mandated food deserts study by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service. The workshop, summarized in this volume, provided a forum in which to discuss the public health effects of food deserts.
Download and read online U S Health in International Perspective in PDF and EPUB The United States is among the wealthiest nations in the world, but it is far from the healthiest. Although life expectancy and survival rates in the United States have improved dramatically over the past century, Americans live shorter lives and experience more injuries and illnesses than people in other high-income countries. The U.S. health disadvantage cannot be attributed solely to the adverse health status of racial or ethnic minorities or poor people: even highly advantaged Americans are in worse health than their counterparts in other, "peer" countries. In light of the new and growing evidence about the U.S. health disadvantage, the National Institutes of Health asked the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to convene a panel of experts to study the issue. The Panel on Understanding Cross-National Health Differences Among High-Income Countries examined whether the U.S. health disadvantage exists across the life span, considered potential explanations, and assessed the larger implications of the findings. U.S. Health in International Perspective presents detailed evidence on the issue, explores the possible explanations for the shorter and less healthy lives of Americans than those of people in comparable countries, and recommends actions by both government and nongovernment agencies and organizations to address the U.S. health disadvantage.
Download and read online Environment Planning in PDF and EPUB